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Introduction
 

Mangalore is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bound by the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghat mountain ranges, Mangalore is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada (formerly South Canara) district in south western Karnataka.


Mangalore derives its name from the local Hindu deity Mangaladevi. It developed as a port on the Arabian Sea – remaining, to this day, a major port of India. Lying on the backwaters of the Netravati and Gurupura rivers, Mangalore is often used as a staging point for sea traffic along the Malabar Coast. The city has a tropical climate and lies on the path of the Arabian Sea branch of the South-West monsoons. Mangalore's port handles 75% of India's coffee exports and the bulk of the nation's cashew exports.


Mangalore was ruled by several major powers, including the Kadambas, Vijayanagar dynasty, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, and the Portuguese. The city was a source of contention between the British and the Mysore rulers, Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan. Eventually annexed by the British in 1799, Mangalore remained part of the Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947. The city was unified with the state of Mysore (now called Karnataka) in 1956.


Mangalore is demographically diverse with several languages, including Tulu, Konkani, Kannada, and Beary commonly spoken, and is the largest city of Tulu Nadu region. The city's landscape is characterized by rolling hills, coconut palms, freshwater streams, and hard red-clay tiled-roof buildings. In an exercise carried out by the Urban Development Ministry under the national urban sanitation policy, Mangalore was placed 8th cleanest city in the country. In Karnataka it is 2nd after Mysore.


Mangalore is an important city in Karnataka and is situated on the west coast. After integration the city is developing fast in all directions viz. in the field of education, industry and commerce. The city is located in the confluence of Nethravathi and Gurupura rivers. It is bound in the east by the Western Ghats and in the west by the Arabian Sea. Three National Highways viz., NH-17 linking Panvel and Kanyakumari, NH-48 linking Mangalore and Bangalore, NH-13 linking Mangalore and Solapur pass through the city. A domestic Airport is located at Bajpe, which is 15 km from city connecting it to Mumbai and Bangalore.The name Mangalore is the anglicised version of Mangaluru, the name for the city in the local Kannada language. The Malayalam language variant of the same is Mangalapuram. One of the earliest references to this name is made by Pandya King Chettian, who called the city as Managalapuram in 715 AD. Yet another historical reference is by the 11th century Arabian traveler Ibn Batuta, whose chronicles refer to Mangalore as Manjarur.


This variation in spelling is attributed to the pronunciation gap between and Arabic and the local language.It is believed that the city derived its name from the temple of Goddess Mangaladevi. Mangaluru literally means the city of Mangala According to legend Matsyendranatha, one of the important propounders of the Nath cult had arrived at Mangalore with the princess of Kerala, Premaladevi. He named her Mangaladevi. It is believed that they could not proceed further as Mangaladevi died after a brief period of illness and a temple was consecrated in her name at Bolar. Later the Mangaladevi was renovated by the Alupa king Kundavarma in 968 AD.In the native Tulu language, the city is known as Kudla meaning junction as the city is situated at the confluence of the two rivers Netharavathi and Phalguni. The Konkani language variant of this Kodial. The region covering Mangalore is known locally as Tulunadu, on account of the predominance of Tulu language



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The Sultan Battery in Mangalore
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the Light House Hill